Book Review

An American Marriage

An American Marriage is a novel about not only the difficulties of a new marriage but also the pernicious effects of the American justice system. Author Tayari Jones notes that the foundation of this novel was a childhood in which “men are under siege,” specifically black men who are subject to a justice system that “criminalizes black men and destroys families.”

Throughout An American Marriage Jones asks readers to grapple with questions between right and wrong. Is it right for a man to be sentenced to twelve years in prison for a crime he did not commit? Is it right for a new wife to leave her wrongfully imprisoned husband after years of not speaking to him? Is it right to even make a value judgement on the characters given what they’ve been subjected to? Is it right that in America today one’s life can be turned upside down by a racist judge?

In grappling with these questions, Jones shows how systemic racism can so easily wreck lives and relationships.

Selected Quotes

“Six or twelve,” he sometimes said when he was depressed, which wasn’t all the time but often enough that I recognized a blue mood when it was settling in. “That’s your fate as a black man. Carried by six or judged by twelve.” 1

She had made her choice. I could see it in the determined square of her shoulder as she washed my plate and cup. She had chosen what it was going to be and that was that. Just like a jury in a prefab courtroom had decided that I was a rapist and that was that. Just like a judge in another shabby courtroom decided I was going to prison and that was that. Then a compassionate judge in DC agreed that the prosecutor set me up, so I got free and that, too, was that. For the last five years, people have been telling me what my life is going to be. But what could I do about it? Tell the judge that I’m not going to jail? Tell the DA that I decided to stay? What could I tell Celestial? Could I demand that she love me again? 1

Roy spent the last five years in prison while I’d been writing computer code. 1

But someone was going to pay for what happened to Roy, just as Roy paid for what happened to that woman. Someone always pays. Bullet don’t have nobody’s name on it, that’s what people say. I think the same is true for vengeance. Maybe even for love. It’s out there, random and deadly, like a tornado. 1


  1. Jones, Tayari. An American Marriage (Oprah’s Book Club): A Novel (Oprah’s Book Club 2018 Selection) Algonquin Books. Kindle Edition.

China

Shanghai Urban Garden

This is one of my favorites from Shanghai. It’s a mural painted on the wall of one of Shanghai’s first urban farms. The farm divides two housing communities—one being among the most expensive developments in Shanghai and one being a working class complex. A door was proposed at this spot to link the two communities but never came to fruition. Nevertheless, the farm director told us children and parents from both sides of the wall now tend to the garden and participate in activities. While I really do wish this door had been built—it would have saved me 15 minutes of walking—this mural preserves the hope that one day divided communities will come together.

Also, look at the sign at the top—I really got a kick out of what must be a reference to Platform 9 and 3/4. Maybe someday everyone will be able to find their magical train on Platform 9 and 3/4

China

Four Months in Shanghai

So excited to get a chance to spend four months in China. Naturally The Bund (外滩) was among the first places we went, and of course I had to get the classic tourist shot of Pudong (浦东).

Long Form

Github Study Shows Gender Bias

A group of student researchers recently released a study of code hosted on Github.com, a popular website that computer programmers collaborate on, that aimed to understand the gender biases that surround coding. The researchers expected that there would be bias against code written by women, given the fact that the industry’s gender balance is heavily tilted towards men.1

Interestingly, the researcher’s hypothesis did not hold, and they found that code written by women was in fact more likely to be approved by community leaders on Github.com than code written by men. Specifically, the study found that code written by women was accepted 78.6% of the time compared to code written by men which was accepted 74.6% of the time.2 However, this finding only held true when the researchers removed any gender markings from the profiles and code that was submitted. When gender markers were added back in, a gender bias against women was documented. This led to the overall conclusion that women may be more competent at coding but their code faces discrimination anyway.

The researchers were sure to investigate other possible sources for this disparity. Code written by women was accepted more than code written by men across all the top programming languages. Additionally, women were not found to be writing shorter code than their male counterparts, so their contributions were not more likely to be accepted because of their snippet’s length. Women also were not benefitting from reverse bias, whereby coders promote the work of women on purpose to help foster a more inclusive coding community.

The findings highlight the struggles that women face in an industry with a pronounced gender imbalance. This issue, of course, extends into the real world, where women report that they face discrimination in interviews and on the job, with reports of women who feel that they have to work twice as hard as the men at their firm. Anecdotally, hiring managers have told women that they are the most qualified for the position but that they would have to fight to get them on the team because upper management was expecting a man. It is this uncalled-for misogyny that makes even women advise other women against getting into the field because they know the obstacles and boundaries that they will face. In an occupation that is known for its high pay, availability of new jobs and its ability to work from home, this is truly unfortunate. It is widely accepted that diversity is important in creating the best product, whether it is on Github.com or at a company in the real world.

I’ve heard some in the industry say that there is a pipeline issue—that too few women are studying in the field—and while this is true, this research suggests that even at the professional level biases still exist. Companies and communities clearly must do more work to eliminate this discrimination, which ranges from the unconscious prejudice to forthright sexism. While it will not happen overnight, I’m hopeful that studies like this will help raise the public’s awareness of the gender imbalance in the technology field and that the industry will be able to realize improvements in the coming years.